at guaranteeing equal rights for racial minorities in the areas of employment, housing, and civil liberties."165 Such cooperation with Chinese Americans was not typical. After the full-scale Japanese invasion of China in 1937, relations between the two groups in the United States became deeply embittered. Thirty years later, many of the Sansei were following the lead of a latter-day model minority, African-Americans who organized and led the U.S. Civil Rights movement. These Japanese Americans did not advocate blending into the African- American movement as much as learning from that movement how to combine the sometimes clashing features of liberation and group identity. 166 Out of this involvement came the Asian-American Studies Movement, although it had other sources as well. 167 It will be recalled that the seven young Nisei students at the Minidoka concentration camp school declared their solidarity with African- Americans out of a profound identification of the Japanese Americans, African- Americans, and Native Americans.