Asian-American Education: Historical Background and Current Realities

By Meyer Weinberg | Go to book overview

judgments on teaching and other inadequacies. They learned, too, to demand structural changes to benefit their children. This was most evident in the Wisconsin desegregation cases.

An increasingly critical activism by parents suggested that Hmong were learning how to contend for improved schools in the American mode. Civil rights approaches were being utilized by Hmong. In Laos, the problem for parents was to get governmental authorities to build and conduct schools for Hmong children. In the United States, the schools existed but operated unequally.


NOTES
1
Somlith Pathammavong, "Compulsory Education in Laos," p. 83 in Charles Bilodeau and others, Compulsory Education in Cambodia, Laos and Viet-Nam ( UNESCO, 1955).
2
Bounlieng Phommasouvanh, The Preparation of Teachers and Its Role in the Laosization of Public Secondary Schools in Laos (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 1973), p. 41.
3
Hugh Toye, Laos. BuVer State or Battleground ( Oxford University Press, 1968), p. 60.
6
Phommasouvanh, The Preparation of Teachers, p. 42.
8
Wendy Batson, "After the Revolution: Ethnic Minorities and the New Lao State," p. 141 in Joseph J. Zasloff and Leonard Unger, Laos: Beyond the Revolution ( St. Martin's Press, 1991).
9
Geoffrey C. Gunn, Political Struggle in Laos (1930-1954): Vietnamese Communist Power and the Lao Struggle for National Independence ( Editions Duang Kamol, 1988), p. 33.
10
Sucheng Chan, ed., Hmong Means Free. Life in Laos and America ( Temple University Press, 1994), p. 7.
11
Gunn, Political Struggle in Laos, p. 32.
13
Phommasouvanh, The Preparation of Teachers, p. 77.
14
Gunn, Political Struggle in Laos, p. 33.
16
Paul F. Langer, Education in the Communist Zone of Laos ( RAND Corporation, 1971).
18
Phommasouvanh, The Preparation of Teachers, p. 117.
19
Khamphao Phonekeo, "Literacy in Laos," Bulletin of the UNESCO Regional OYce for Education in Asia, 5 ( 1970-71), p. 48.
21
Phommasouvanh, The Preparation of Teachers, pp. 120-121.
22
Joel M. Halpern and Marilyn Clark Tinsman, "Education and Nation-Building in Laos," Comparative Education Review 10 ( October 1966), p. 502.
24
See maps of conflicting land-control claims in Chan, Hmong Means Free, pp. 34-35. For a Pathet Lao view of recent history, see Kaysone Phomvihane, Revolution in Laos. Practice and Prospects ( Progress Publishers, 1981)
25
Vietnam Courier, October 7, 1965, quoted in Halpern and Tinsman, "Education and Nation- Building in Laos," p. 50.
27
Langer, Education in the Communist Zone of Laos, p. 6.

-199-

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Asian-American Education: Historical Background and Current Realities
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Chapter One: Introduction 1
  • Chapter Two - China 12
  • Chapter Two - China 36
  • Notes 37
  • Chapter Three - Chap 42
  • Notes 67
  • Chapter Four - Korea 74
  • Notes 92
  • Chapter Five - Philippines 97
  • Notes 122
  • Concluding Remarks 128
  • Notes 151
  • Chapter Seven - Cambodia 156
  • Concluding Remarks 170
  • Notes 171
  • Chapter Eight Laos 176
  • Notes 199
  • Chapter Nine Hong Kong 205
  • Notes 221
  • Chapter Ten Taiwan 226
  • Notes 237
  • Chapter Eleven Micronesia 241
  • Notes 255
  • Chapter Twelve Polynesia 259
  • Notes 281
  • Chapter Thirteen India 287
  • Notes 307
  • Chapter Fourteen Cross-Group Issues 313
  • Notes 327
  • Index 331
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