judgments on teaching and other inadequacies. They learned, too, to demand structural changes to benefit their children. This was most evident in the Wisconsin desegregation cases.
An increasingly critical activism by parents suggested that Hmong were learning how to contend for improved schools in the American mode. Civil rights approaches were being utilized by Hmong. In Laos, the problem for parents was to get governmental authorities to build and conduct schools for Hmong children. In the United States, the schools existed but operated unequally.