Japan-American Diplomatic Relations in the Meiji-Taisho Era

By Kamikawa Hikomatsu | Go to book overview

CHA PTER FIVE
RELATIONS BETWEEN JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES AFTER THE OPENING OF THE PORTS

1. Contitions at the Time of the Conclusion of the Treaties of Trade

A. The Opening of the Ports and Consequent Effects

Japan's treaties of trade with the United States, Britain, France, Holland, and Russia prescribed that Kanagawa, Nagasaki, and Hakodate were to be opened to foreign trade in July, 1859. In preparation for this, the Shogunate appointed Nagai Hisanao, Mizuno Tadanori, Inoue Kiyonao, Iwase Tadanaru, and Hori Toshihiro, the ablest and most brilliant government officials of the time, as officials in charge of foreign affairs. The diplomatic representatives of foreign countries also came to take their posts in Japan. The United States promoted Harris, minister resident, to United States Minister to Japan and he moved from Shimoda to the Zempukuji Temple at Azabu, Edo, using the temple as the provisional legation. He also set up a United States consulate at the Honkakuji Temple at Kanagawa. Britain appointed Consul-General Alcock of Canton as British diplomatic representative and consul-general to Japan. He arrived at Nagasaki in June 1859 and established a provisional legation at the Tofukuji Temple at Takanawa, Edo. France sent Belcour (phonetic) as French consul-general and diplomatic representative to Japan. He arrived in Edo on September 6 and opened the French legation at the Saikaiji Temple at Azabu. Curtius, the Dutch diplomatic representative to Japan, opened his office at the Cho'ōji Temple at Shiba. Soon afterward, he was replaced by Dutch Consul-General David. The Russian diplomatic representative and consul took up duties in Hakodate in September.

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