Wittgenstein: An Introduction

By Joachim Schulte; William H. Brenner et al. | Go to book overview

4
Language Games

Investigations

The Philosophical Investigations is Wittgenstein's major post-Tractatus work. Although he kept refining the manuscript until near the end of his life, it can be said with some justification that the book was a completed work when first published in England, two years after his death. The decision of the editors to include the so-called second part was questionable, however, for there is nothing to indicate that this would have been in keeping with the author's intention. Therefore, in the following discussion it is usually "Part I" that is meant whenever referring to the Investigations.

There is no decisive answer to the question as to when Wittgenstein began to write the Philosophical Investigations (PI). As noted earlier, there is a sense in which everything he wrote after his return to philosophy was to be part of the planned masterwork. The PI does not, however, cover everything he aimed to cover--it has no logico-mathematical part, for instance. It is therefore perhaps more appropriate to say that the work had its beginning in the fall of 1936. Wittgenstein was then in Norway trying to rewrite the book he had dictated in Cambridge, known as the Brown Book. (The result is printed in the German edition under the title Eine philosophische Betrachtung.) Eventually he came to the conclusion that (as he puts it in a notebook) "this whole attempt at a reworking is worth nothing." He took a new approach and, after months of concentrated effort, produced the early version of the first

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Wittgenstein: An Introduction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Author's Preface vii
  • Translators' Preface ix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus 39
  • 3 - Connecting Links 69
  • 4 - Language Games 97
  • 5 - Criteria 129
  • 6 - Certainty 155
  • Bibliography 175
  • Index 183
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