THE "BULL MOOSE" CAMPAIGN
After Hiram Johnson was elected governor of their state, California progressives became anxious to find another Republican who could replace President Taft in 1912. Taft, personally selected by Roosevelt to carry on in the progressive tradition, had failed to achieve the pending shift in party control from the Old Guard to the insurgents. By finally aligning himself with the reactionaries he had alienated progressives across the nation.1
Like most progressives, those in California were astonished by Taft's desertion of the insurgents on the tariff question and were outraged when he signed the Payne- Aldrich tariff bill of 1909.2 Taft was further discredited in the eyes of California's progressives when, in the Alaskan lands controversy of 1910, he supported his secretary of the interior, Richard A. Ballinger, rather than Gifford Pinchot, leader of the anti-Ballinger forces and a man of immense popularity in California.
Moreover, Taft's visit to California in October, 1911