Red Star East: The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia

By Greg Austin; Alexey D. Muraviev | Go to book overview

new operational entity took place in September 1998, during a joint exercise of the Pacific Fleet and ground and air units of the Kamchatka group subordinated to the fleet. 196 This exercise involved 14 surface combatants and submarines, including two Oscar-II class SSGNs, and five support ships, air assault and air defence units, S-300 SAM complexes and MiG-31 Foxhound aircraft, two infantry battalions and heavy artillery. 196 During four days of manoeuvres nearly 70 different exercises were performed on shore and at sea. It seems that the Russian military command were satisfied with the results of the exercises, not only for their military effectiveness but for the much lower cost.


CONCLUSION

Russia has adopted successive versions of a defensive military doctrine which sees a much reduced threat of major war compared with Soviet doctrine and which pays much more attention to local wars on the periphery of the country, or even within the country. The new doctrines place on Russia burdens of international citizenship, such as peacekeeping, that the USSR had not undertaken. The new doctrines enshrine ideas of economic and human security that underpin the defensive orientation of Russia's military doctrine. But the new doctrines also shift Russia's public position on use of nuclear weapons to provide for their use against grave threats to Russian territory in a conventional war. Moreover, the more liberal-inspired elements of the military doctrine sit beside other aspects which indicate that Russia retains some great-power chauvinism in the way it views the world. These aspects have come to the fore in threats by Russia to revise its military doctrine in the light of US unilateralism in use of military force and the expansion of NATO to the east. On both of these issues, Russia has been seeking to be heard but believes it has been ignored for more than five years.

The Russian government has not been successful in matching new military doctrines to its force structure because of the overwhelming weight of domstic political and economic circumstances, and because of the resistance of military leaders to substantial change. The log-jam of military reform was broken by 1997, and military reforms began in earnest, but the government has not been able to finance the armed forces or the reform program to the extent necessary.

In the chaos of unfunded military reform and a toughening

-180-

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Red Star East: The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Armed Forces of Asia ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Foreword v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Maps, Tables and Figures viii
  • About the Authors x
  • Preface xii
  • Acknowledgements xv
  • Note on Transliteration of Russian and Citation of Sources xvi
  • 1 - Russia: Rebuilding the State, Reconstituting the Nation 1
  • Conclusion 37
  • 2 - Russia East of the Ural Mountains 39
  • Conclusion 60
  • 3 - National Strategic Policy 62
  • Conclusion 93
  • 4 - Strategic Policy in the Asia-Pacific 96
  • Conclusion 128
  • 5 - Military Doctrine and Force Posture 130
  • Conclusion 180
  • 6 - Nuclear Forces 182
  • Conclusion 202
  • 7 - Naval Forces 204
  • Conclusion 232
  • 8 - Air Forces 234
  • Conclusion 254
  • 9 - Ground Forces 257
  • Conclusion 286
  • 10 - Military Industry and Regional Arms Sales 287
  • Conclusion 312
  • Conclusion 314
  • Appendix 319
  • Notes 323
  • Bibliography 380
  • Index 389
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