Red Star East: The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia

By Greg Austin; Alexey D. Muraviev | Go to book overview

Appendix

SUMMARY OF FORCES

In 1999, there were four services: the Strategic Missile Forces (SMF), the Russian Federation Navy (RFN), the Russian Federation Air Force (RFAF), and the Ground Forces. In addition, the Ministry of Defence had about 200 000 personnel, including centrally controlled units for electronic warfare, logistic support and training, and intelligence. Total strength of the Russian armed forces in 1998 was estimated by the International Institute for Strategic Studies as 1.159 million. In spite of efforts to move to a largely volunteer force, in late 1998 there were only 163 000 contract personnel in the forces--a mere 15 per cent. Women in the armed forces in 1998 numbered about 130 000, all of whom were volunteers.


Strategic Missile Forces

Russia remains a nuclear superpower. No other country apart from the USA has the numbers, variety and advanced technology of Russia's nuclear forces. In 1998, Russia had 756 ICBMs, 348 SLBMs and 70 strategic bombers, which under strategic arms limitation agreements with the USA were designated to carry a total of 5972 nuclear warheads. Russia's strategic defence forces (the former Missile Space Forces and Missile Space Defence) have about 21 000 personnel, 100 anti-ballistic missiles, a number of satellites and up to 20 related radar sites, including some sites newly constructed in former Soviet republics ( Belarus, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan).

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Red Star East: The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Armed Forces of Asia ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Foreword v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Maps, Tables and Figures viii
  • About the Authors x
  • Preface xii
  • Acknowledgements xv
  • Note on Transliteration of Russian and Citation of Sources xvi
  • 1 - Russia: Rebuilding the State, Reconstituting the Nation 1
  • Conclusion 37
  • 2 - Russia East of the Ural Mountains 39
  • Conclusion 60
  • 3 - National Strategic Policy 62
  • Conclusion 93
  • 4 - Strategic Policy in the Asia-Pacific 96
  • Conclusion 128
  • 5 - Military Doctrine and Force Posture 130
  • Conclusion 180
  • 6 - Nuclear Forces 182
  • Conclusion 202
  • 7 - Naval Forces 204
  • Conclusion 232
  • 8 - Air Forces 234
  • Conclusion 254
  • 9 - Ground Forces 257
  • Conclusion 286
  • 10 - Military Industry and Regional Arms Sales 287
  • Conclusion 312
  • Conclusion 314
  • Appendix 319
  • Notes 323
  • Bibliography 380
  • Index 389
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