responsible for these changes, whether the changes are maintained over time, and to identify the source of the observed gender differences in attitude change. However, these results are encouraging. For many students it seems that the greatest barriers to learning are the lack of motivation to learn and the belief that one cannot learn effectively. If experience with LOGO can help students overcome these barriers by fostering the belief that school is a positive place to be, it would clearly be a powerful tool for learning.
The present research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH38235 to John D. Bransford, Jeffrey J. Franks, and Keith N. Clayton.
We gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of Dr. George Kersey, principal, and the fifth-grade students and teachers at Carter-Lawrence Middle School in Nashville, TN for their generous and continued support in this research project.
Barker, C., & Lunn, J. C. ( 1969). "The development of scales to measure junior school children's attitudes". British Journal of Education, 39, 64-71.
Bransford, J. D., Stein, B. S., Arbitman-Smith, R., & Vye, N. J. ( 1985). "Three approaches to improving thinking and learning skills". In J. Segal, S. Chipman, & R. Glaser (Eds.) Thinking and learning skills: Relating instruction to basic research (Vol. 1, pp. 133-206). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Camione, J. C., Brown, A. L., & Ferrara, R. A. ( 1982). "Mental retardation and intelligence". In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 392-490). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chipman, S. F., Segal, J. W., & Glaser, R. ( 1985). Thinking and learning skills: Research and open questions (Vol. 2). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Clements, D. H. ( 1986). "Effects of LOGO and CAI environments on cognition and creativity". Journal of Educational Psychology, 78( 4), 309-318.
Clements, D. H., & Gullo, D. F. ( 1984). "Effects of computer programming on young children's cognition". Journal of Educational Psychology, 76( 6), 1051-1058.
Clements, D. H., & Nastasi, B. K. ( 1985). "Effects of computer environments of social-emotional development: LOGO and computer-assisted instruction". Computers in the Schools, 2( 2/ 3), 11-32.
Clements, F. J. ( 1981). "Affective considerations in computer based education". Educational Technology, 10, 28-32.
Delclos, V. R. ( 1987). "An introduction to programming in LOGO". In C. K. R. D. Kinzer Sherwood, & J. D. Bransford (Eds.), Computer strategies for education: Foundation and content-area applications. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing.
Delclos, V. R., Bransford, J. D., & Haywood, H. C. ( 1984). "Instrumental enrichment: A program for teaching thinking". Childhood Education, 60, 256-259.
Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., & Hoffman. M. ( 1979). Dynamic assessment of retarded performers. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.