Human-Computer Interaction: Communication, Cooperation, and Application Design

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview

3 Results

Since the entire experiment was based on an assumption that the subject would answer the appropriate question as soon as a part of the DFD was comprehended and understood. The order of questions as presented to each subject should not affect the comprehending sequences. Correlations between the answering order and the order of the questions presented on the sheet were 0.533 and 0.33 for the novices and intermediates, respectively. The two were of no statistical differences. The correlations did not suggest much interference by the presentation order of the questions and therefore the data could be used to represent the comprehension sequences of the subject.

The intermediate group took an average of 47.8 minutes to complete the entire DFD session, significantly shorter than the average of the novice group, 81.4 minutes (p<0.001). Analysis of variance was performed on the time used to complete each question. The effect of experience (novice/intermediate) was significant on the time used to complete each question (p<0.001). The depth level of the questions in the DFD did not appeared to affect the completion time of each question. The number of errors made during the entire experiment session was smaller for the intermediate group than for the novice group (p<0.001). These time and error differences showed that the two groups were indeed different in terms of their expertise in reading the DFD.

As far as the difference in comprehension strategy is concerned, there were also differences between the two groups. There were two counterparts of the comprehension strategy, one is the reading sequence, with which the subject looked through the DFD, and the other was the answer sequence, with which the question was picked and answered. Although the subject was asked to answer the question as soon as any part of DFD was understood, there was no guarantee that this could be exactly followed. Therefore, the data of the two counterparts were both looked at.

The average reading depth was computed as the levels reached into the diagram for each same direction move before turning back. There was significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05). The mean depth was 1.9 and 1.72 levels for the intermediate and the novice group, respectively, indicating that the experienced subject tended to go deeper into the diagram at each same direction move. The number of downward moves in reading along the DFD was also significant with 50.8 moves for the novice and 36.7 for the intermediate (p<0.05). This indicated that the intermediate used fewer steps in getting what he needed to learn from the DFD.

Each question had a correspondent level within the DFD. Similar to the definition of the reading depth, the average answering depth was the correspondent level reached during each same direction move when the question

-50-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Human-Computer Interaction: Communication, Cooperation, and Application Design
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 1364

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.