Human-Computer Interaction: Communication, Cooperation, and Application Design

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview

use of these systems. Aiming wide acceptance of CAL systems, having the good system model (the Intelligent Tutoring Systems, for example), an investigation should also be performed toward how the everyday life processes will enable the development and distribution of these systems. A model of development and use process should be created to find out how the developers and users are getting benefits from participation in the process and how this leads to wide acceptance and use of the CAL systems. A realistic implementation is based on benefit oriented models ( Eskenasi et al. 1993). Further, by considering the context in which the development and usage processes are carried out, a set of software systems (CAL systems, authoring system and so on, i.e. systems which should support the ongoing processes) can be defined and the basic features of these systems must be specified. This way of modelling can outline the proper model of the CAL systems and can ensure their wide acceptance.


3 Process Model for Medical Domain

A model of the development and use is proposed (

Fig.1
) which differs from traditional model (Fig.2) with respect to the reorganised communication/ interaction channels between the actors and with respect to the increased amount of benefits for the actors. The reorganised communication channels preserve the existing form of interactions between the domain experts and between students and teachers, thus providing better communication and collaboration facilities. Increased amount of benefits for the actors together with the preserved communication/interaction channels facilitates the introduction of the new technology.

In the traditional process (Fig.2), developers develop particular CAL system by consulting domain experts and/or teachers to determine what the system should teach (Domain Knowledge) and by consulting teachers and pedagogic experts to determine how the system should teach (Pedagogical Knowledge). Practice has shown that resulting CAL system reflects views of only those developers, teachers, and domain experts involved in the development of particular CAL system and hence the system is usable only to very few students. The usage part of the traditional process restricts the interaction between student and teacher, because student is expected to interact with the system rather than discussing the topic with the teacher. In short, traditional approach lacks provision of collaboration between developers, experts and students resulting such CAL systems which do not have desired properties, are very expensive and are not quite usable.

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