Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

XX
PLANT GROWTH IN CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION

JOHN M. ARTHUR

Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Yonkers, N. Y.

Plant growth in supplemental and continuous artificial light. Evidence of injury from continuous sunlight. General conclusions. References.

The literature dealing with plant growth under continuous illumination falls naturally into three main divisions according to the light sources used. The divisions are: continuous natural sunlight, sunlight supplemented by artificial light for 12 hr. or longer each night, and continuous artificial light. The earliest observations on the effect of continuous light on plants were concerned entirely with plants growing in continuous sunlight in the Arctic regions. Observation and experimentation in the other two main divisions obviously began only with the development of high-intensity light sources which approached sunlight in brilliancy and which could be maintained over a considerable period of time.

At an early date European travelers within the Arctic circle were impressed with the rapid growth of plants during the long days as compared with that of similar species growing farther south. In this connection the observations of Linnaeus, in 1739, as quoted by Smith (27) are of interest: "Slowness of growth corresponds to the length of summer nearer the poles, however, not entirely; because toward the poles the summer is shorter but also has longer days and the plants thrive and grow by the heat of the sun. In Paris the summer is longer than in Lapland; therefore the plants ripen later in France than in Lapland, the length of time being counted from the appearance of the shoots until they bear ripe fruit. In Paris the cool nights are longer, during which time the plants rest; wherefore they also need more days to ripen. In Lapland there is so to speak no night during the summer, therefore plants can grow both day and night. For example: In 1732 grain sown May 31st was mown ripe July 28th, maturing in 58 days. Rye sown May 31st, 1732, was mown August 5th, maturing in 66 days. This took place in Luleå, Lapmarck, and could not have happened farther south."

Schübeler (25), in 1880, also observed the remarkable development of plants under continuous sunlight during the short summers of the Arctic regions. More recently Albright (1, 2) has called attention to the rapid development of grain, potatoes, and various species of vegetable-

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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