Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

XXI
THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT INTENSITY UPON SEED PLANTS

HARDY L. SHIRLEY

Lake States Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Introduction. Influence of darkness on plants: Effect of darkness on growth, form, and structure--Effect of darkness on composition--The influence of light on etiolated plants--Miscellaneous effects of darkness--Theories as to the cause of etiolation. The effect of light intensity upon plants: The "light-growth reaction"--The effect of light intensity upon the growth and development of plants--Light intensity and mineral nutrition--The influence of light intensity on flowering--The influence of light intensity upon transpiration, winter hardiness, and resistance to drought--Minimum light requirements. Summary. References.


INTRODUCTION

This section is devoted chiefly to the effects of radiation within the visible region, λ 4000 to 7200 Å, or "light" upon plants. However, the term "light" is frequently used in a more general sense, i.e., in speaking of sunlight we generally mean total solar radiation, and in speaking of artificial light we mean the total radiation of the source in question. Unless otherwise qualified, "light" in this section will be used to designate the total radiation from the source used. A discussion of the methods and instruments available to the worker in the field of radiation, as well as the variability of radiation and other factors are considered in another section of this survey. It should be emphasized here, however, that, in examining the work in this field, the experimental technique available to the worker must be constantly kept in mind and the results weighed accordingly. When the difficulties involved in studying the influence of light on plants are fully appreciated, it is little wonder that we find in the literature many contradictions and many opposing theories.


INFLUENCE OF DARKNESS ON PLANTS

Darkness, or zero light intensity, produces in plants an effect known as etiolation, the general features of which are familiar to all plant workers. The typical characteristics of etiolation were described by John Ray in 1686. From his time on, many botanists have studied etiolated plants. The general features of etiolated plants are described in textbooks on plant physiology and morphology, such as Strasburger (102), Benecke-Jost (9), Haberlandt (44), Goebel (39), and Sachs (88). MacDougal (65) made a comprehensive review of the literature dealing

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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