Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

XXV
SOME INFRA-RED EFFECTS ON GREEN PLANTS

JOHN M. ARTHUR

Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Yonkers, New York

Energy absorption of a green leaf. Absorption by chlorophyll and the possibility of photosynthesis. Transpiration in the infra-red. Injury from infra-red. References.

In general more than 50 per cent of the total energy of sunlight is in the infra-red region. This percentage varies owing to the selective absorption of the atmosphere, presence of clouds, and the distance the solar rays must travel through the atmosphere to reach the observer. In artificial light sources the percentage output of infra-red is higher. This value in case of the incandescent-filament lamp decreases with the increasing efficiency of the lamp, that is, with an increasing filament temperature. In the 1000-watt tungsten-filament lamp with an efficiency of 20.5 lumens per watt and 1000 hr. normal life the infra-red output is approximately 88 per cent of the total according to Forsythe and Watson (11). The carbon are has approximately 75 per cent of the total energy output in the infra-red region according to the data of Coblentz and others (9) and of Karrer (15).


ENERGY ABSORPTION OF A GREEN LEAF

Both sunlight and common artificial light sources have more than 50 per cent of the entire radiant-energy output in the infra-red. It is, therefore, relevant to inquire into the known effects of this region on plants. First, it is important to determine whether infra-red is absorbed by green plant leaves, as energy must be absorbed in any region before it can accomplish a result. Very little study has been made of the infra-red absorption or transmission of leaves. Some reflection measurements have been made by Coblentz (8). He found that reflection decreased steadily from λ8000 to 30,000 Å. A red oak leaf reflected 18 per cent at λ8000 and about 8 per cent at 30,000 Å. Allowing the leaf to dry overnight caused a decrease in reflection due, Coblentz believes, to the loss of water which increases rapidly in absorption beyond λ14,000 Å and decreases the amount of radiation which can return by internal reflection. Leaves of chestnut, oak, ash, locust, and pokeberry were all found to have a lower infra-red reflection than red oak.

-841-

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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