Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

XXVI
THE EFFECT OF ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION UPON SEED PLANTS

H. W. POPP AND F. BROWN

Department of Botany, The Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa.

Introduction. The effect upon seed germination and early growth of seedlings: Earlier investigations--More recent investigations--Summary. General studies on the effect upon more mature plants: Introduction--Injurious effects of short-wave ultra-violet radiation--Plants grown in daylight from which the ultra-violet portion was removed. Plants grown in daylight with additional short daily irradiation from a mercury-vapor lamp--Plants grown exclusively under artificial illumination--Plants grown under special ultra-violet transmitting glasses--General summary. Other relations to seed plants: Introduction--Absorption and reflection of ultra-violet radiation by plant tissues-- Ultra-violet radiation and fluorescence of plant parts--Effects of ultra-violet radiation upon anatomical structure and flower formation--Ultra-violet radiation and the formation of chlorophyll and anthocyanin--Concluding remarks. References.


INTRODUCTION

In trying to arrive at a definite understanding of the effect of ultra- violet radiation upon plants one is immediately confronted by the fact that few experiments have been conducted in which ultra-violet alone was the causative variable. There is consequently little agreement among the investigators. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of ultra- violet on the animal organism have, in recent years, encouraged the attempt to demonstrate similar effects on plants, with the result that a great number of short experiments have been reported in which the lack of adequate controls has rendered the conclusions of doubtful value. In view of these facts the best that can be done in a review of this kind is to point out the claims of the various investigators and to evaluate them as far as possible on the basis of the merits and defects of their methods. The discussion which follows is subdivided according to the nature of the work reported.


THE EFFECT OF ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION UPON SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF SEEDLINGS

EARLIER INVESTIGATIONS

Before 1921 very few investigations had been carried out on the effects of ultra-violet radiation upon seed germination and early growth of seedlings. Carl (9) had stated that ultra-violet rays from a mercury- vapor lamp were detrimental to seed germination and the early growth

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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