Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

XXVII
THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON FUNGI

ELIZABETH C. SMITH

Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin

Introduction. Visible and ultra-violet radiation: Mycelium--Fruiting structures-- Spores--Mutations and saltations--Physiological properties. X-rays. Rays emitted from radioactive substances. General summary. References.


INTRODUCTION

Interest in the effects of light on fungi has now lasted well over a century. The early work was of a decidedly qualitative nature and dealt only with light of the visible spectrum. Since that time investigations have been extended to include radiations from the short gamma waves to Hertz waves of a hundred meters. Unfortunately even the most recent work is largely of a qualitative nature. For the most part, when monochromatic light was used, the intensity was not measured, and when the intensity was measured, the quality of the light used was not accurately determined; or the intensity was not kept constant when the wave-length was changed. Throughout most of the work there has been an inadequate control of environmental conditions. These uncontrolled factors have often led to an unfair interpretation of results, and this fact must be given due weight in any attempt to estimate what is known about the effects of radiation on fungi. In view of the absence of any attempt, apparently, to bring together the scattered and extensive literature in this field, and further, in view of the wealth of biological material that has been considered, it has seemed desirable to include in this paper observations that vary greatly in merit or importance.


VISIBLE AND ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION

MYCELIUM

Pigmentation .--Since early times botanists have observed that fungi which are growing in the dark are likely to be very pale in color in comparison with those grown in the light. Bonorden (12) made note of this as early as 1851, and since that time Smith and Swingle (170), Bessey (6), Robinson (159), Milburn (122), Kosaroff (93), Morris and Nutting (127), and others have made similar observations. Humboldt and Seyne (cf. Elfving, 39), however, showed that this was not applicable to all fungi since they found colored varieties growing in complete darkness. Lieske (105) also found that the formation of pigment in Actinomycetes is apparently independent of the action of light. There

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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