Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

stant temperature apparatus reduces the considerations to the single point of deciding at what temperature the process should be kept. In some cases it may be necessary to use more than one temperature in order to cover all possible variations.

The working range of temperature for yeast and alcoholic fermentation is 0∘ to 50°C. with the optimum at or near 30∘. The temperature coefficient (Q10) is thought to be about 2, as would be expected for a process so clearly based on a series of chemical transformations. Of course, in their relations to other forms of experimentation with fermentation, these data emphasize the need of careful control of temperature during any series of measurements or growth tests.


SUMMARY

As an aid in picturing the direct effects of radiation upon plant metabolism, the more or less well supported conclusions are stated by short phrases in the following table:

Type of radiation Respiration Alcoholic fermentation
Light No effect with lower plants; pos-
sible slight acceleration with
higher plants
Retards action by
yeast
Ultra-violet Temporary acceleration for higher
plants
Marked acceleration
X-rays No critical test made for lower
plants; depression for higher
plants
Small decrease in rate
during exposure
Radium Depression by beta particles for higher plants No information
Heat effects Acceleration by rise in tempera-
ture
Acceleration by rise
in temperature

REFERENCES

BERSA E. Strahlenbiologische Untersuchungen III. Über den Einfluss der Röntgenstrahlen auf die Atmung der Wurzelspitzen von Vicia faba. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math-Naturwiss. Kl. Abt. I, 136: 403-419. 1927. (Extensive bibliography of preceding work with X-rays.)

DE S. R. BOER The effect of ionized air on the rate of respiration of fungi. Annals Bot. 44: 989-999. 1930.

DE S. R. BOER Respiration of Phycomyces. Rec. Trav. Bot. Néerland. 25: 117-239. 1928. (Full bibliography of influence of light on respiration.)

DAY T. C. The influence of light on the respiration of germinating barley and wheat. Trans. and Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 20: 185-213. 1894.

HÉBERT A., and A. KLING. De l'influence des radiations du radium sur les fonctions chlorophyllienne et respiratoire chez les végétaux. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris] 149: 230-232. 1909.

JOHNSON EDNA L. Effects of X-rays upon growth, development and oxidizing enzymes of Helianthus annuus. Botan. Gaz. 82: 373-402. 1926.

-1071-

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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