Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

XXXIV
CHLOROPHYLL AND CHLOROPHYLL DEVELOPMENT IN RELATION TO RADIATION

O. L. INMAN, PAUL ROTHEMUND, AND C. F. KETTERING

Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio

Condition of chlorophyll in the chloroplast. Chlorophyll development in relation to radiation. Effect of radiation on extracted chlorophyll. Behavior of chlorophyll under the influence of ultra-violet radiation. Influence of factors other than radiation on chlorophyll formation. Yellow pigments associated with chlorophyll. References.


CONDITION OF CHLOROPHYLL IN THE CHLOROPLAST

A good review of the literature on the origin of plastids in the plant and on the association of the various pigments in the same plastid was given by Zimmermann (89). Pfeffer (54) called attention to the fact that since the plastid is an organized part of the living cell, its functioning must at all times be considered with this in mind. Willstätter and Stoll (86, pages 54-55) believed chlorophyll to be held in the chloroplast in the colloidal state. The action of solvents upon the leaf material, and the nature of the absorption spectrum of the living leaf as compared with that of extracted chlorophyll which had been made colloidal, led to this opinion.

Stern (72) concluded that only molecularly dispersed chlorophyll is fluorescent and, since chlorophyll in the chloroplast, as in the alga Chlorella, is fluorescent, it is therefore molecularly dispersed through the plastid and may be in a viscous solvent (lipoid) which is itself colloidally dispersed. Tswett (78a) demonstrated that chlorophyll fluoresces in the living plant and he found fluorescence in Spirogyra at λ6850 to 6700 Å and λ6600 to 6500 Å, and in Oscillatoria at λ6700 to 6300 Å. Lloyd (37) confirmed these results of Tswett. According to Noack (46) chlorophyll in the living leaf is present in a state of adsorption in a monomolecular layer on the protein of the chloroplasts. Hilpert, Hofmeier, and Wolter (27) believe that the chlorophyll in the leaf is related in some way both to the carotinoids and to protein, and that it is certainly not in solution in the lipoid phase. It is obvious that there still remains room for further clarification as to the physicochemical state of the chlorophyll in the chromatophore.


CHLOROPHYLL DEVELOPMENT IN RELATION TO RADIATION

In general, plants do not become green unless exposed to visible radiation, but Artari (1) showed that some one-celled algae turn green

-1093-

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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