Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

XXXV
RADIATION AND ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTS

JOHN M. ARTHUR

Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research Introduction. Light and anthocyanin pigments. Carbohydrate accumulation and anthocyanin development. Relation of anthocyanin production to environment. Temperature, radiation, and anthocyanin formation. Absorption and transmission of anthocyanin pigments. Conclusion. References.


INTRODUCTION

The eye of man was attracted, probably from the beginning, by the bright pigments of plant leaves, flowers, and fruit. The first studies of these pigments, therefore, date back to the first studies on the physiology of plants. In 1664, Robert Boyle (8) recorded his observations that syrup of violets turned red when vinegar or any other acid liquor was added. Since that time the bibliography on this subject has accumulated at a rapid rate. Onslow (25) has published a book on the anthocyanin pigments which gives 879 references to publications on this single group up to the year 1925 and this is by no means complete. Möbius (25), in 1927, published a monograph on various kinds of plant pigments. This publication includes more than 300 references. In general, the possibility of formation of pigments is largely determined by hereditary factors. The degree of pigmentation may be, and often is, determined by environmental factors. For a discussion of factors other than light which affect pigment formation, the reader should consult the book by Onslow mentioned above.

The effect of light and darkness on some of the red and blue anthocyanin pigments was observed in 1799 by Senebier (32). Crocus and tulip flowers he found developed pigment in the dark. Sachs (28) confirmed the work of Senebier and added iris and hyacinth to the list of flowers developing pigment in the dark. Sachs also found another group of flowers which developed color only if the buds were exposed to light until the time of opening. Brassica, Tropaeolum, Papaver, and Cucurbita were included in this list. Where shoots only of these plants were darkened, the flowers which developed upon these had a less brilliant coloration. Sorby (33) studied the absorption bands of extracted pigments as well as the development of colors in the plants. He observed that the production of red pigment in leaves often depended upon light, since a leaf, when partially covered by an opaque screen, such as another leaf, did not develop pigment under that screen. Sorby was

-1109-

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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