Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2

By Benjamin M. Duggar | Go to book overview

group of plants he found a normal cathodal migration without any further treatment of the tissue, while in a third group there was no migration. While the work of Blinks does not prove, or even indicate, that there is a migration of pigment from cell to cell it demonstrates that pigments, under certain conditions, can be moved comparatively rapidly within the cells.

A continued, intensive study of the development of pigment in such isolated plant organs, held under constant environmental conditions, offers considerable promise of a very rapid advancement of our knowledge on the formation of pigment in plants, as well as the effect of external factors on such formation. This has been pointed out before by Mirande (21) in a discussion of his work with the scales from lily bulbs, but so far it has failed to stimulate any great amount of work in the field. The problem in such cases is reduced to its simplest form, that is, production of a pigment in an isolated plant organ induced by light and other external factors, where the process is not accompanied by the photosynthesis of other carbohydrate materials.


ABSORPTION AND TRANSMISSION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTS

There is general agreement among various investigators that the blue- violet and often the ultra-violet regions of sunlight are especially effective in anthocyanin production. It is also interesting to recall that many of the anthocyanins have absorption bands in these general regions. Schou (30) studied the absorption bands of several purified anthocyanidins, the colored constituents of the anthocyanin molecules. Many of these had absorption bands in the ultra-violet near λ2700 Å. The maximum-absorption regions for one of these, pelargonidin, was found to be at the following wave-lengths: 2670, 3310, 4000, 4540, and 5040 Å. Most of the other anthocyanidins studied were found to have primary bands near wave-lengths 5000 to 5200 Å. Schou observed that the position of the OH groups caused shifts in the positions of the bands. Murakami, Robertson, and Robinson (23) found the region of absorption of both natural and synthetic chrysanthemum chlorides to be between wave-lengths 4800 and 5700 Å. Arthur (1) observed that both the red peel and extracted red pigment of apples had an absorption band in this same general region. The green peel was found to have a transmission five to seven times as great as the red peel in both the ultra-violet and visible regions. The formation of the pigment in the epidermis acts, therefore, as a protective covering as regards the penetration of light into deeper layers of cells.


CONCLUSION

It should be stated that the exact mechanism of anthocyanin formation in living cells brought about by light, low temperature, and other factors, yet remains unknown. Even the effect of these factors on the

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Biological Effects of Radiation: Mechanism and Measurement of Radiation, Applications in Biology, Photochemical Reactions, Effects of Radiant Energy on Organisms and Organic Products - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Xix Photoperiodism 677
  • Introduction 677
  • References 709
  • Xx Plant Growth in Continuous Illumination 715
  • References 725
  • Xxi the Effects of Light Intensity Upon Seed Plants 727
  • Introduction 727
  • References 757
  • Xxii Effects of Different Regions of the Visible Spectrum Upon Seed Plants 763
  • Introduction 763
  • Concluding Remarks 787
  • References 788
  • Xxiii Effect of the Visible Spectrum Upon the Germination of Seeds and Fruits 791
  • References 823
  • Xxiv the Effects of Visible and Ultra-Violet Radiation on the Histology of Plant Tissues 829
  • References 838
  • Xxv Some Infra-Red Effects on Green Plants 841
  • References 851
  • Xxvi the Effect of Ultra-Violet Radiation Upon Seed Plants 853
  • Introduction 853
  • Concluding Remarks 881
  • References 882
  • Xxvii the Effects of Radiation on Fungi 889
  • Introduction 889
  • References 910
  • Xxviii the Problem of Mitogenetic Rays 919
  • Introduction 919
  • Conclusions 944
  • References 946
  • Xxix Effects of X-Rays Upon Green Plants 961
  • Introduction 961
  • General Summary 980
  • References 983
  • Xxx the Effects of Radium Rays on Plants 987
  • References 1009
  • Xxxi the Light Factor in Photosynthesis 1015
  • References 1051
  • Xxxii the Influence of Radiation on Plant Respiration and Fermentation Charles J. Lyon 1059
  • Introduction 1059
  • Summary 1071
  • References 1072
  • Xxxiii Growth Movements in Relation to Radiation 1073
  • Xxxiv Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll Development in Relation to Radiation 1093
  • References 1104
  • Xxxv Radiation and Anthocyanin Pigments 1109
  • Introduction 1109
  • Conclusion 1116
  • References 1118
  • XXXVI - Effects of Radiation on Bacteria 1119
  • References 1141
  • Xxxvii the Effects of Radiation on Enzymes 1151
  • References 1160
  • Xxxviii Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Animals 1167
  • Introduction 1167
  • References 1202
  • Xxxix Radiation and the Study of Mutation in Animals 1209
  • Introduction 1209
  • References 1252
  • Xl Induced Mutations in Plants 1263
  • Introduction 1263
  • References 1278
  • Xli Induced Chromosomal Alterations 1281
  • References 1293
  • Xlii Induced Chromosomal Alterations in Maize 1297
  • References 1308
  • Xliii Biological Aspects of the Quantum Theory of Radiation Absorptions in Tissues 1311
  • References 1326
  • Subject Index 1331
  • Alphabetical List of Contributors 1343
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