Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
b. Improved types of artillery invented during war.
c. Gas, liquid fire, tanks, etc., introduced during the war.
d. Importance of aviation underestimated at beginning of war.
3. Decisive importance of economic resources, scientific technique, manpower, and morale, in a protracted war.

C. ENHANCED POWER AND INFLUENCE OF MILITARY AND NAVAL LEADERS.
1. Tendency of military and naval leaders to assume greater authority in time of war, illustrated in the extreme case of Ludendorff's virtual dictatorship in Germany.
2. Inability of military leaders, oftentimes, to understand importance of diplomatic, legal, and political forces.
a. German invasion of Belgium, a fatal diplomatic error, committed at the demand of military authorities.
b. German submarine warfare, another case of bad judgment.
3. Tendency of military leaders to insist on peace terms that are good from military point of view, but dangerous politically.
a. Ludendorff's insistence, before German defeat, on the military necessity of annexations.
b. Tendency of Marshal Foch and other military authorities to favor separation of Left Bank from Germany, and other politically unwise measures.
c. Difficulty of combining expert political and expert military knowledge in a single person.

VI. ARMAMENTS SINCE THE GREAT WAR
References:--* Enock, pt. 3. * International Conciliation, The Reduction of Armaments (no. 188); Washington Conference (no. 172). * World Peace Foundation, The Staggering Burden of Armaments. * Inst. of Int. Educ., The Limitation of Armaments (Syllabus no. XII). # Page, ch. iii. # Buell, Washington Conference, chs. v, vii. F. Nitti, Decadent Europe. League of Nations, numerous official publications on armaments.
A. MILITARISM UNABATED.
1. Armies of Great Powers.
1914 1922* Population 1922
Germany 812,000 100,000† 60,000,000
Austria 424,000 30,000‡ 6,428,000
Hungary 35,000‡ 8,000,000
Italy 318,000 210,000 39,000,000
Russia 1,300,000 600,000 132,000,000
France 846,000 736,000§ 41,000,000
Great Britain 250,000 225,000 43,000,000
U. S. A. 105,000 145,000 106,000,000
Japan 250,000 250,000 60,000,000
* Figures from Statesman's Year Book.
† By peace treaty; actual strength, including armed police and private organizations, much larger than 100,000.
‡ Limited by peace treaty. § Including colonials; subsequently reduced.

-80-

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