|a. ||Antagonism between Russian and Austro-German intrigues in
Balkans, especially in Bulgaria.|
|b. ||Revelation of Austro-German separate treaty to Russian ambassador by Bismarck in 1887.|
|c. ||Russian need of money for railway construction, armaments and
industry--flotation of Russian loans in Paris, beginning 1887.|
|d. ||Tariff and other economic difficulties between Russia and Germany.|
|e. ||Mutual rivalry with England.|
|4. ||Lapse of the "Reinsurance Treaty" in 1890.|
B. EXCHANGES OF PUBLIC VISITS AND OTHER DIPLOMATIC AMENITIES
BETWEEN FRANCE AND RUSSIA IN 1890's.
C. THE ALLIANCE.
|1. ||Secret entente, signed in 1892.|
|2. ||Secret military convention, drafted in 1892 and signed 1894.|
|a. ||Russian pledge to aid if France should be attacked by Germany
or by Italy and Germany.|
|b. ||French pledge to aid if Russia should be attacked by Germany
or by Austria supported by Germany.|
|c. ||Modification in 1899.|
D. EFFECT OF DUAL ALLIANCE.
|1. ||End of French isolation and German supremacy.|
|2. ||Balance of Power between Dual and Triple Alliances.|
|3. ||Increased insecurity of England, as well as of Germany.|
|4. ||In later years, encouragement of French imperialism in Africa and of
Russian ambitions in Balkans.|
E. SUPPLEMENTARY NAVAL AGREEMENT (below, XIX).
V. IMPERIALIST RIVALRIES AND BRITISH ISOLATION
References :-- * Gooch, chs. vi-ix. * Seymour, ch. vi. * Marriott, chs.
vii-viii. Ward and
Gooch, III, 187
. Debidour, I, chs. viii-x. Korff,
ch. ii. Lemonon, ch. ii, pts. iii, iv. Friedjung, I, chs. vi-ix, xi-xiv. Brandenburg, chs. iv-vii. B. Schmitt, England and Germany
. Eckardstein, Ten Years at the Court of St. James. Die Grosse Politik
, VIII, ch. 51.
A. TRADITIONAL "SPLENDID ISOLATION" AND "BALANCE OF POWER" POLICIES
B. ANGLO-FRENCH IMPERIALIST RIVALRY IN THE 1880's AND 90's.
|1. ||In western Africa (compare Part 3, V).|
|2. ||The Egyptian question (compare Part 3, VIII-G).|
|3. ||The Fashoda incident as the culmination of rivalry in Sudan and Abyssinia (compare Part 3, VII).|
|4. ||In Burma and Siam (compare Part 3, XI-C, D).|
|5. ||Newfoundland fisheries and other minor disputes.|
|6. ||Intensification of Anglo-French antagonism.|