Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview

V. RUSSIA
References:-- Korff, Russia's Foreign Relations. Dennis, Foreign Policies of Soviet Russia. Rosen, Forty Years of Diplomacy. Witte, Memoirs. Isvolsky, Memoirs. Buchanan, My Mission to Russia. Paléologue , An Ambassador's Memoirs. Siebert, Entente Diplomacy. Marchand, Livre Noir. Laloy, Les Documents secrets. Earle, Turkey, the Great Powers, and the Bagdad Railway (use index). Welschinger, L'Alliance Franco-Russe. F. Tönnies, Der Tsarismus.
A. DESIRE FOR ACCESS TO THE SEA.
1. Historic policy, since reign of Peter the Great, of acquiring and holding "windows to the west."
a. Outlet on Baltic, acquired by conquests of Peter the Great.
b. Outlet on Black Sea, acquired by his successors.
c. Special importance of efforts to obtain Constantinople and access to Mediterranean.
d. Unsuccessful efforts in 20th century to gain outlet through Persia.
2. Effect of the Russian Revolution on this policy.
a. Loss of Baltic provinces and Finland, but adoption of commercial agreements giving Russia commercial access to sea through lost ports.
b. Failure to obtain Constantinople.
i. Non-fulfilment of Allies' promise to permit Russian annexation of Constantinople.
ii. Russian Bolshevist policy (shown at Lausanne Conference, see above, Part 6, VIII-D), of demanding closure of Straits to warships; Russian policy on this point no longer aggressive, but defensive.

B. ASIATIC EXPANSION.
1. Early Russian expansion into Siberia.
a. Geographic and economic conditions favoring expansion.
b. Resemblance to American westward migration.
c. Permanent effect: Russia a factor in northern Asia and Far East, regardless of fluctuations of policy.
2. Imperialist expansion in 19th and 20th centuries.
a. Importance of economic penetration, military conquest, and political motives in this new expansion.
b. Conflict with Japanese interests in Korea and Manchuria, leading first to Russo-Japanese War, then to agreements permitting Russian control of northern Manchuria and Outer Mongolia.
c. Conflict with British interests in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet, leading to Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 (above, Part 3, X).
3. Effect of Bolshevist revolution.
a. Repudiation of imperialist bargains with Japan and Great Britain.
b. Renunciation of privileges in Persia and Manchuria.
c. Renewed conflict with Japan, due to temporary Japanese occupation of eastern Siberia and northern Sakhalin.
d. Renewed antagonism toward England, due to Bolshevist propa-

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