Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
goods; hence, increase of international trade and intensified competition of domestic and foreign producers.
4. Agricultural progress --opening up of new countries, introduction of agricultural machinery, and tendency toward large-scale production for world market, instead of "all-round" farming for local consumption; hence, intense competition, notably in wheat, cotton, meat, and wool.
5. Nationalism --hence tendency to regard nation as unit in international trade, and to demand protection of national government for producers.
6. Democratic politics --making protection a party issue, and facilitating operation of group interests on government, through votes, campaign contributions, etc.

B. USE OF TARIFFS TO PROTECT MARKETS.
References:-- * "Fisk and Peirce", chs. iv, v, vii, viii. Taussig, Free Trade, the Tariff, and Reciprocity.Id., Tariff History of the United States. Percy Ashley, Modern Tariff History. T. E. G. Gregory, Tariffs, a Study in Method. U. S. Tariff Commission, Reciprocity and Commercial Treaties. Id., Colonial Tariff Policies. Kelly Customs Tariffs of the World. W. H. Dawson, Protection in Germany. Higginson , Tariffs at Work. Meredith, Protection in France. Taussig, Principles of Economics. Seligman, Principles of Economics. Drage, Imperial Organization of Trade, ch. iv. Grunzel, Economic Protectionism, 135-62, 303-17. Seager, Principles of Economics.
1. General survey of growth of protectionism in practice.
a. United States.
i. (i) Early protectionist tendencies-- Hamilton Report on Manufactures; the Tariff of 1816; the "Act of Abominations" of 1828.
ii. (ii) The period of lower tariffs, 1833-61.
iii. (iii) Protective tariffs since the Civil War.
iv. Emergency tariff legislation of 1861 and 1864.
v. High McKinley Tariff of 1890.
vi. Higher Dingley Tariff of 1897.
vii. Payne-Aldrich Tariff of 1909.
viii. Lower Underwood Tariff of 1913.
ix. Higher Fordney Tariff of 1922, with provision for future adjustment of rates by President with advice of Tariff Commission in order to "equalize the costs of production" in U. S. and abroad (see Quar. Jour. Eco., Nov. 1922, 1-51).
x. (iv) Influence of American protective tariffs (especially 1861, 1890, and 1897) as stimuli to protectionism in Europe.
b. (b) Germany.
i. (i) Tendency toward low tariffs, 1819-79, culminating in almost complete abandonment of protective duties.
ii. (ii) Agitation by manufacturers and landowners favoring protection.
iii. (iii) Bismarck's protective tariff of 1879, supported by iron and textile manufacturers and by landowners; opposed by exporters, seaports, and liberals generally.

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