Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
Japan, supposedly overpopulated, clamoring for "outlets," but leaving a considerable amount of agricultural land in Japan uncultivated, and sending very few emigrants to South American countries where immigrants are welcomed--"surplus population" a political slogan rather than an economic fact.
Germany, complaining of surplus population in the 1880's, when emigration was considerable, but, after industrial development, importing Polish laborers in 20th century.

C. THE DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD.
1. Great inequality of nations in agricultural resources in relation to population.
2. Actual production of foodstuffs determined largely by profit motives, dependent on world market prices, transportation facilities, etc., rather than by principle of producing as much as possible on all available land.
3. Dependence of nations upon each other for foodstuffs.
a. Fallacy of assuming that a nation which exports grain is selfsufficient, and vice versa.
b. The position of the United States.
i. (i) Able to export grain, meat, dairy products, fruits, etc.
ii. (ii) Dependent on other countries for coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, olive oil, sugar, certain kinds of fish, nuts, figs and dates, certain fruits, etc.
c. The position of Great Britain.
i. (i) Able to export fish, beer and ale, etc.
ii. (ii) Dependent on imports of grain, dairy products, meat, potatoes, etc., to supplement domestic production, and of tropical products.
d. France.
i. (i) Exports about 2 billion francs ( 1922) of fruits, dairy products, and other foodstuffs.
ii. (ii) Imports almost 5 billion francs ( 1922) of wine, cereals, coffee, etc.
4. Nationalistic efforts of U. S., Germany, France, and other countries to stimulate agriculture, with a view to becoming "self-sufficient," by means of protective tariffs on food; as contrasted with British repugnance to duties on food (compare II, above).

D. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF IMMIGRATION, IN RELATION TO FOOD AND POPULATION.
1. Immigration attracted primarily by wages, political and social conditions, not by food supply or unoccupied land.
Tendency of European immigrants in the U. S. to enter industry and congregate in urban centers.
Reluctance of immigrants to take up farms or ranches in sparsely settled agricultural regions of South Africa, Australia, South America.
2. Importance of immigration to manufacturers in countries with high wage levels--immigration as a reservoir of cheaper labor and stimulus to industrial expansion.

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