Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
ii. Subsidies for construction or operation of ships-- France, Japan, Italy, etc.; small success of French subsidy policy.
c. Indirect aid.
i. Restriction of coastwise traffic to ships registered under national flag--practised by France and many others; not by Great Britain or Germany.
ii. Preferential railroad rates for certain shipping lines. Preferential rates, or remission, of port and canal duties.
iii. Exemption of ship-building materials from customs duties.
iv. Admission of foreign ships to national registry.
d. U. S. shipping policy.
i. Early mail subsidies.
ii. The Shipping Act of 1916 and the Shipping Board during the War.
iii. Jones Merchant Marine Act of 1920.
iv. Failure of Ship Subsidy Bill of 1922.
e. Relative standing of maritime nations in total tonnage.
Millions of Tons
Pre-War 1922
British 18.7 22
American 7.9 17
German 5 1.9
French 2.2 3.8
Japanese 1.5 3.6

B. FREEDOM OF THE SEAS AND WATERWAYS.
References:--* Fisk and Peirce, 266-8. Potter, The Freedom of the Seas. Ogilvie, International Waterways. Baker, Woodrow Wilson and the World Settlement, II, ch. xlv. Temperley, History of the Peace Conference, II, 92-112. Angell, The World's Highway. Further bibliographies in Fisk and Peirce and Ogilvie.
1. Freedom of the high seas.
a. Importance of general principle, established in modern times, that the open ocean is a free highway for ships of all nations.
b. Limitation of freedom of seas in war time--contraband and blockade.
i. Declaration of Paris, 1856.
ii. Hague Conventions.
iii. Declaration of London.
iv. Ineffectiveness of these rules in the Great War--the British blockade and the German submarine policy.
v. President Wilson's advocacy of freedom of the seas.
vi. Failure of the peace conference to settle the question.
c. National jurisdiction over inland waters and over coastal waters within 3-mile limit; U. S. negotiations for extension of jurisdiction to 12 miles for enforcement of prohibition.
2. Straits and canals.
a. Importance of certain straits and canals for international commerce--Dardanelles and Bosphorus, Dover, Gibraltar, Bab-el- Mandeb, Malacca, Great Belt and Little Belt; Kiel Canal, Suez Canal, Panama Canal.

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