London Conference on Luxemburg, 1867.London Conference on Black Sea, 1871.Berlin Conference on Near East, 1878.Berlin Conference on Africa, 1884-5. 1899 Hague Conference. 1906 Algeciras Conference. 1907 Second Hague Conference. 1909 London Conference on maritime law. 1913 London Conference on Near East. 1914 Failure of proposals for conference on Serajevo incident.
B. INCREASED TENDENCY TO USE CONFERENCE METHOD DURING AND SINCE
|1. ||During the war:|
The Inter-Allied Conference of Paris, 1917.
The Supreme War Council.
|2. ||Diplomacy by conference as a notable feature of the post-bellum
|a. || The Peace Conference.|
|b. || The League Assembly, League Council, and subsidiary conferences.|
|c. || The International Labor Conference.|
|d. ||The "continuation conferences" of premiers and of ambassadors.|
|e. || The Washington Conference on Arms and the Far East.|
|f. || The Genoa Economic Conference.|
|3. ||Advantages of diplomacy by conference.|
|a. ||Avoidance of mechanical difficulties of coding, cabling, and decoding instructions to and reports from ambassadors.|
|b. ||Direct conduct of negotiations, in important conferences, by
heads of states instead of diplomatic representatives with less
|c. ||Possibility of simultaneous negotiations among a number of
states in conference, contrasted with bilateral nature of ordinary diplomatic intercourse.|
|d. ||Conferences as a means of bringing statesmen into intimate relations of cooperation, frankness, conciliation (but sometimes
|4. ||Some criticisms of diplomacy by conference.|
|a. ||Large conferences unwieldy--e.g., Genoa Conference; Peace
|b. ||Conferences successful only if agenda are carefully prepared and
participants desirous of agreement.|
|c. ||Tendency of frequent conferences of Premiers since the War to
consume time of governmental leaders, and discuss many
subjects but agree on few.|
|d. ||Public expects results. Hence tendency of statesmen to announce
achievement of agreement "in principle" when there is really
VII. DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL AND EFFICIENCY
Special references:-- * Poole, 20-8, 73-82. # Mowrer, 312-348. # National Civil Service Reform League, Report on the Foreign Service.