|1.||Internationalism of commerce and finance and labor agitation (Part 8), reflected in international management of international means of communication, international labor legislation, agreements concerning copyrights, industrial property, etc. (below, IV, and VIII).|
|2.||Cultural internationalism--science, education, literature, art, music, travel, religion.|
|3.||Military and naval internationalism--substitution of military alliances for military self-sufficiency, by most Great Powers, before 1914, and close military cooperation during Great War.|
|4.||Humanitarian internationalism--necessity of international cooperation to deal with disease, drugs, white slave traffic, etc. (below, IV).|
|5.||Political internationalism--similarity of many political institutions, of many political issues, of some political parties (notably Socialism).|
|6.||Legal internationalism--tendency toward development of international law and justice (below, IX, X).|
|7.||Governmental internationalism--development of many forms of international cooperation by governments in recent times (below, IV).|
|8.||Pacifist internationalism--tendency to seek in internationalism the remedy for war.|
CONFliCT AND COMPROMISE BETWEEN A AND B.
GREAT POWERS WITHOUT ANY FORMAL OBLIGATIONS OR COVENANT.
|1.||The Concert as a continuation, in an informal manner, of the Holy Alliance and Quadruple Alliance.|
|2.||The traditional unity of Christendom as a basis of the Concert.|
|3.||The homogeneity of European civilization as a basis of the Concert.|
|4.||Desire to prevent general war by dealing unitedly with disturbances of status quo, especially in Near East.|
|1.||Irregular international conferences, including Great Powers and sometimes smaller powers, to deal with crises or specific subjects, e.g.--|