A Note on the Analysis of Chicago Voting Behavior
THE INTIERPRETATIONS of voting behavior in this work rest mainly upon a statistical analysis of Chicago election and demographic data. Election returns were obtained from the Chicago Daily News Almanac, and from manuscript sources in the Chicago Municipal Reference Library and the office of the Chicago Board of Election Commissioners.
The principal sources for determining the ethnic composition of Chicago wards were the school censuses printed in the Annual Reports of the Chicago Board of Education for 1894, 1904, 1906, and 1908; the "Composition of Chicago's Vote-1892," a chart printed in the Chicago Daily News Almanac for 1894, 318 (totals corrected for errors), giving the nationality of Chicago's electorate in 1892; and the population schedules for Chicago given in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth U.S. censuses.
Information pertaining to the class character of wards was obtained from school attendance figures in the Annual Reports of the Chicago Board of Education for 1894, 1904, 1906, and 1908; from mortality rates in the "Vital Statistics" volumes of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth U.S. censuses; from a qualitative description of each Chicago ward in Vital Statistics: Cities of 100,000 and Upwards, U.S. Eleventh Census, IV, Pt. 2, 161-181; and from illiteracy and school attendance figures for Chicago in the thirteenth U.S. census.
Securing information concerning the religious composition of Chicago wards was most difficult. Sources for the 1890- 1900 period were supplied to the author by Paul J. Kleppner, who had determined the religious character of Chicago wards for his doctoral dissertation, "The Politics of Change in the Midwest: The 1890's in Historical and Behavorial Perspective" ( University of Pittsburgh, 1967). For the 1900-1912 period, estimates were made based upon the ethnic composition of wards; the location of churches within wards; the U.S. Bureau of the Census, Special Reports, Religious Bodies: 1906 ( 2 vols., Washington, 1910); and from information in various secondary works.
The election and demographic data were fed into an IBM 360 computer. The program rank-ordered Chicago wards according to the political or demographic variable involved. (A rank order consists of listing a number of units [wards] from highest to lowest according to some common quality.) Spearman rank-order correlations were then run between the