A Study of Error: A Summary and Evaluation of Methods Used in Six Years of Study of the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board

By Carl C. Brigham | Go to book overview

CHAPTER II
The Study of Symbols

Science originates in the attempt to answer questions proposed by philosophy. Counting might have given arithmetic but mathematics arose from speculations concerning the properties of geometrical figures in relation to numbers. Sticks may be seen and counted, but roots are relations. Physics was a natural philosophy seeking to discover the nature of matter and the elements -- earth, air, fire and water. In seeking to answer these metaphysical questions, science perfects its techniques of observation, places more apparently independent phenomena into relationships usable for prediction, but never really returns the complete solutions, for science stops at explanation. Science observes and predicts -- philosophy explains.

A perennial problem for philosophy has been the origin of the universal. As psychological knowledge has advanced, the account has been changed, but the universal always springs in some manner from particulars. The persistent asking of the question as to the exact manner in which particulars give rise to universals forces psychology to return some answer.

Now it maybe doubted that the problem as set has significance. Has anyone ever noted anything but an original universal response subsequently changed to meet particular situations? The most accurate descriptions of the behavior of fetal or newly-born organisms seems to be summed up in the term "generalized." Particulars are learned discriminations, as the animal experimenters who have tried to condition to differences in stimulation well know.

The conditioned salivary reflex set up in a dog by simultaneous presentation of food and a certain tons will also be evoked by other tones. The animal must then be conditioned, by withholding food, not to respond to other tones. The original learning is fairly widespread. Klüever's 1 studies on equivalence of stimuli reveal a broad range of stimuli to which monkeys will respond with the same degree of success as obtained after the original learning.

It would seem that the logical universal is the psychological whole experience as it comes. This universal becomes more usable and therefore more of a universal in the pragmatic sense, as it is broken down. Insight into the breaking-down process has come from experimental studies of forgetting. The logical particular is psychologically non-existent and the original question of the origin of the universal should never have been raised.

But the fact that the question was asked led to some consistent observational work. Aveling's 2 thesis sought to answer the question "what is discoverable in consciousness when we think the 'universal' or the 'individual.'" (p.72) He

-18-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Study of Error: A Summary and Evaluation of Methods Used in Six Years of Study of the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 388

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.