The Second Tory Party, 1714-1832

By Keith Grahame Feiling | Go to book overview

I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONDITIONS

IN 1727 Swift met Bolingbroke, Pope, and Arbuthnot for the last time; that autumn he went back to Ireland for good, and the Augustan circle was dispersed. The next summer Pope took a riding tour on an elderly pony that rolled Lord Cobham's lawns at Stowe; only on his journey did he discover that this veteran had been brave Derwentwater's charger in the '15.

Much the same is our first impression of party history in the eighteenth century. It moves at a jog-trot, all battle and tumult gone, on the flat plain which lies between the storms of Queen Anne's reign and the passion of the French Revolution. Was there, then, no continuity whatever between the party of Bolingbroke and the party of Pitt and Canning? and if there were Tories in those days, who should be taken as their type? Historians have given every sort of answer; some holding that the Tories were still the party of the Church, others that they had sunk to mere faction; some making Mansfield the essential Tory, some North, and others, again, the younger Pitt.

Only one relic of the Augustan Tories lingered on into the youth of Pitt and Dundas. This was Allen first Lord Bathurst, one of the famous 'twelve' created to carry the Peace of Utrecht, dear friend of Pope and all his circle. His prescription, he once told Swift, was to laugh as long as he lived, and laughter seemed to make life long, for he had spoken to Richard Cromwell and lived to see his own son Chancellor in the North ministry; 'now the old gentleman has gone to bed,' this youthful father would say, 'let us have another bottle'. He had swiftly abandoned Jacobitism, spoke of his Tory friends as 'the country party',* took office under Carteret, and was thought of as governor for George III. But his sober son burned his correspondence with all the links it might have given us in his party's transition.

____________________
B
*
Bathurst to Strafford, 13 May 1734, Add. 22221.

-1-

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The Second Tory Party, 1714-1832
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • I- The Problem and Its Conditions 1
  • II- In the Wilderness 1714-1727 13
  • III- Sir Robert 24
  • I- Fusion and Confusion 1742-1754 39
  • V- The Watershed- I 1754-1760 58
  • VI- The Watershed- II 1760-1765 68
  • VII- The Watershed- III 1765-1768 87
  • VIII- The New Parties 1768-1774 99
  • IX 122
  • X- The Divide 1782-1784 143
  • XI- The Party of Mr. Pitt 1784-1792 164
  • XIII- The Breaking of the Pitt Party 1800-1806 213
  • XIV- The Age of Faction 1806-1812 247
  • XV- Aftermath of War 1813-1820 276
  • XVI- Breaking-Point (1820-1826) 304
  • XVII- The Break 1826-1830 345
  • XVIII- Finale 384
  • Authorities 405
  • Notes 409
  • Index 425
  • By the Same Author British Foreign Policy 1660-1672 *
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