THE NEW PARTIES
FOR another fourteen years Britain was engulfed in these questions labelled Wilkes and America, each so huge in its deeper ramifications, years which, though divided by two general elections, form one political epoch.
The Wilkes controversy drove the Chatham wing piecemeal from the Cabinet. Chatham and Shelburne went in October 1768, in January 1770 Camden was dismissed, and Grafton, with Conway and Dunning, resigned. North succeeded as Prime Minister. The consequent reunion of 'the three brothers', Chatham, Grenville, and Temple, was swiftly broken by Grenville's death, whereupon early in 1771 his disciples -- Suffolk, Wedderburn, and Bathurst--joined the Government, for which the Bedfords also found a very strong recruit in Thurlow. Thus composed, of North and King's friends, Bedfords and Grenvilles, it remained till 1779.
With the revival of party principle there increased tenfold the use and abuse of party terms, in which wholly contradictory employments of the word 'Tory' show that we are descending the far side of the watershed from which the streams flow towards the Toryism of Pitt. Elderly partisans like Horace Walpole, with their heads full of the '45, inevitably pictured the country as ruined by Jacobite principles, but in more modern persons it was becoming usual to call the Cabinet 'Tory' with a different meaning. So ran a ballad of 1765:
The Tories od' rat 'em
Abuse my Lord Chatham.
Chatham himself spoke of America as alienated by 'illiberal Tory principles'; gone now was his pride in annihilating party; 'there is a distinction', we hear in 1770, 'between right and wrong, between Whig and Tory'. A younger Granby, the