The Second Tory Party, 1714-1832

By Keith Grahame Feiling | Go to book overview

X
THE DIVIDE
1782-1784

A HOUSE OF COMMONS elected for North in 1780 thus ejected him in March 1782 in favour of Fox and Shelburne; in February 1783 they replaced Shelburne by the Fox-North Coalition; by February 1784 they had almost come round to ejecting that coalition in order to instal Shelburne's disciple Pitt.

Cabinets thus clearly did not depend on popular mandate but poised and turned as of old on a balance, between a royal executive, groups maintained by ministerial influence, and a public opinion not yet drawn up through party systems but scattered, formless, and difficult of expression. The memory of old attachments or resentment for new wrongs moved, it is true, in party grooves. Though all was now a faction fight, the King told William Grenville, there had once been two great bodies acting on principle, while Yorkshire reformers cheerfully hoped 'to rebuild Whiggism'. (1) But the two parties so sharply contrasted had not existed for fifty years, nor did they exist now. Whigs of all sorts combined to stop the American war and carry some economic reform, but here their agreement ceased. Fox hoped they would anyhow give 'a good stout blow to the Crown'; the great Whig houses behind him cared little for the radical reforms which Shelburne and Pitt hoped to achieve through that very Crown, purged of corruption and strong against aristocracy. Those whom the Whigs called 'Tories' were equally divided. There were many of the type who had clung to every government in turn, but essentially, as Walpole had fallen, so now had North, by the swing of independent country gentlemen against him. No party contained the able philanthropic Scot George Dempster, who had voted for Bute's peace, worked hard against the American war, was equally to support Fox's India Bill and Pitt's Irish policy, and ended in opposing the French Revolution; nor Hoghton, a loyal follower of North, whose independency was 'hurt' at receiving a Govern-

-143-

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The Second Tory Party, 1714-1832
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • I- The Problem and Its Conditions 1
  • II- In the Wilderness 1714-1727 13
  • III- Sir Robert 24
  • I- Fusion and Confusion 1742-1754 39
  • V- The Watershed- I 1754-1760 58
  • VI- The Watershed- II 1760-1765 68
  • VII- The Watershed- III 1765-1768 87
  • VIII- The New Parties 1768-1774 99
  • IX 122
  • X- The Divide 1782-1784 143
  • XI- The Party of Mr. Pitt 1784-1792 164
  • XIII- The Breaking of the Pitt Party 1800-1806 213
  • XIV- The Age of Faction 1806-1812 247
  • XV- Aftermath of War 1813-1820 276
  • XVI- Breaking-Point (1820-1826) 304
  • XVII- The Break 1826-1830 345
  • XVIII- Finale 384
  • Authorities 405
  • Notes 409
  • Index 425
  • By the Same Author British Foreign Policy 1660-1672 *
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