The Tatar or Turk Element--Tatars and Mongols--The Kalmỳks--What is the Proportion of Tatar Blood in the Russians?--The Tatars in Russia and the Arabs in Spain--Slow Elimination of the Tatar Element--Ethnical Influence of the Turk Tribes Previous to the Mongol Invasion--Varieties of Type amidst the Modern Tatars--Their Customs and Character.
THE second of the great fountain-heads from which the Russian people might be said to have flowed--the one most peculiar to Russia, more decidedly Asiatic, has received from habit the name of "Tatar." Never did more misleading designation steal into history, philology, ethnography. At its first appearance in Russia this name was borne by one of the Mongol tribes who helped found the empire of Djinghiz-Khan. In her terror of these new barbarians, who seemed to her the outcome of hell, Europe (it was in the thirteenth century) dubbed them "Tartars," and this name, suggested by a classical reminiscence, was extended to all the heterogeneous crowd of peoples dragged along after the savage conquerors. As to the old name, "Mongols," the tribes to which it belonged by right were robbed of it, and it came to designate that branch of the Uralo-Altaïc stock, of which Turkestan was the starting-point, and of which the Turks are the chief representatives. The Tatars who stayed on the banks of the Volga are nearly related to the Turks, or rather they are Turks, just as the Ottomans, both risen from the same cradle, both speaking dialects of the same language; all the difference between them being that the Ottomans invaded Europe later and were converted to Islam only after that invasion. To this day the