The Empire of the Tsars and the Russians

By Anatole L. Leroy-Beaulieu; Zaenaefde A. Ragozin | Go to book overview

BOOK VIII.
MIR, FAMILY, AND VILLAGE COMMUNITIES.

CHAPTER I.

Land Tenure Unchanged by Emancipation--Is the Mira Slavic Institution? Antiquity and Origin of Communal Property in Russia--Differing Views on the Subject--Difference between Moscovite Russia and Western Europe from the Standpoint of the Agrarian System.

WE have seen that the Emancipation Act, while endowing the mujik with land, practically left him very much where he was in the times of serfdom. He now owns the land of which his landlord formerly let him have the use, but the mode of tenure is the same still. Now as formerly the land belongs to the peasants in common, not personally, not individually, by hereditary right. The lots purchased from the landlords were not distributed to the various members of a village community, but remain the collective, undivided property of the commune. The peasant, decorated by the law with the title of landholder, usually owns permanently and certainly only his cabin, his izbà--and the small adjoining enclosure, usàdba ; as to the rest he in reality only has the usufruct of the lot he is paying for.

Such, from times immemorial, has been the form of land tenure in use amidst the peasants of Moscovia or Great-Russia. The emancipation has not changed it. As the tenure of the lands was usually collective, so the redemption of them has also been operated, not individually, but, as a rule, by communes. It is

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The Empire of the Tsars and the Russians
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • A Word from the Translator. iii
  • Author's Preface. Written Expressly for the American Edition. vii
  • Contents xiii
  • List of Maps xxi
  • Part I. the Country and Its Inhabitants xxiii
  • Book I. Nature, Climate, and Soil. 1
  • Book I. Chapter Ii. 15
  • Book I. Chapter Iii. 35
  • Book Ii. Races and Nationality. 54
  • Book Ii. Chapter Ii. 63
  • Book Ii. Chapter Iii. 77
  • Book Ii. Chapter Iv. 95
  • Book Ii. Chapter V. 122
  • Book III. the National Temperament and Character. 138
  • Book Iii. Chapter Ii. 161
  • Book Iii. Chapter Iii. 179
  • Book Iii. Chapter Iv. 195
  • Book Iv. History and the Elements of Civilization. 223
  • Book Iv. Chapter Ii. 241
  • Book Iv. Chapter Iii. 256
  • Book Iv. Chapter Iv. 282
  • Book V. the Social Hierarchy: the Towns and Urban Classes. 305
  • Book V. Chapter Ii. 322
  • Book V. Chapter Iii. 334
  • Book Vi. Nobility and Tchin. 346
  • Book Vi. Chapter Ii. 362
  • Book Vi. Chapter Iii. 381
  • Book Vi. Chapter Iv. 390
  • Book VII the Peasant and the Emancipation. 403
  • Book Vii. Chapter Ii. 422
  • Book Vii. Chapter Iii. 436
  • Book VII Chapter Iv. 450
  • Book VIII. Mir, Family, and Village Communities. 474
  • Book Viii. Chapter Ii. 486
  • Book Viii. Chapter Iii. 505
  • Book Viii. Chapter Iv. 521
  • Book Viii. Chapter V. 534
  • Book Viii. Chapter Vl. 548
  • Book Viii. Chapter Vii. 563
  • Index 581
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