The Empire of the Tsars and the Russians

By Anatole L. Leroy-Beaulieu; Zaenaefde A. Ragozin | Go to book overview

BOOK VIII. CHAPTER VII.

The Communal System and the Struggle between "Great" and "Small"
Landed Property-The Mir, the Peasant's Entail--Transformations
which the Agrarian Commune might Undergo--Can this System be
Adapted to Modern Manners?--What is Legislature to Do with Regard
to Collective Tenure?--Can we See in the Mir a Palladium of Society?
--Illusions on this Subject--The Communal System and the Population
Problem--Collective Tenure and Emigration--Village Communities
and Agrarian Socialism.

THE competition between personal and collective tenure will be made more complicated in Russia by the habitual competition between "great" and "small" property, "great" and "small" culture. There is not only the question as to which mode of tenure, but also that as to which mode of culture is finally to carry the day. Habit and succession laws are not alone to regulate the extent of the land to be owned or tilled by one individual; the structure of the soil, its agricultural aptitude and that of the climates also have their say. There are localities cut up, slashed into strips by nature herself, which seem meant for small farms. There are cultures, that of the vine, for instance, which demand division of labor, and consequently call for division of the soil. The question is, what system, from this double point of view, would be the most remunerative and the most natural to the country? If any spot on earth seems to be made on purpose for wholesale culture carried on by machinery, is it not those immense tchernoziòm plains, where there is nothing to hinder the machines? or those boundless steppes where flocks sometimes have to be taken miles to water? True, just now the great landholders are

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The Empire of the Tsars and the Russians
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • A Word from the Translator. iii
  • Author's Preface. Written Expressly for the American Edition. vii
  • Contents xiii
  • List of Maps xxi
  • Part I. the Country and Its Inhabitants xxiii
  • Book I. Nature, Climate, and Soil. 1
  • Book I. Chapter Ii. 15
  • Book I. Chapter Iii. 35
  • Book Ii. Races and Nationality. 54
  • Book Ii. Chapter Ii. 63
  • Book Ii. Chapter Iii. 77
  • Book Ii. Chapter Iv. 95
  • Book Ii. Chapter V. 122
  • Book III. the National Temperament and Character. 138
  • Book Iii. Chapter Ii. 161
  • Book Iii. Chapter Iii. 179
  • Book Iii. Chapter Iv. 195
  • Book Iv. History and the Elements of Civilization. 223
  • Book Iv. Chapter Ii. 241
  • Book Iv. Chapter Iii. 256
  • Book Iv. Chapter Iv. 282
  • Book V. the Social Hierarchy: the Towns and Urban Classes. 305
  • Book V. Chapter Ii. 322
  • Book V. Chapter Iii. 334
  • Book Vi. Nobility and Tchin. 346
  • Book Vi. Chapter Ii. 362
  • Book Vi. Chapter Iii. 381
  • Book Vi. Chapter Iv. 390
  • Book VII the Peasant and the Emancipation. 403
  • Book Vii. Chapter Ii. 422
  • Book Vii. Chapter Iii. 436
  • Book VII Chapter Iv. 450
  • Book VIII. Mir, Family, and Village Communities. 474
  • Book Viii. Chapter Ii. 486
  • Book Viii. Chapter Iii. 505
  • Book Viii. Chapter Iv. 521
  • Book Viii. Chapter V. 534
  • Book Viii. Chapter Vl. 548
  • Book Viii. Chapter Vii. 563
  • Index 581
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