Nazis, Communists, Klansmen, and Others on the Fringe: Political Extremism in America

By John George; Laird Wilcox | Go to book overview

15 Revolutionary Action Movement

Robert F. Williams was honorably discharged from the U.S. Marine Corps in 1956 and returned to his home in Monroe, North Carolina, where he became leader of the local NAACP. Soon after assuming that position, he confronted the city powers-that-be with what now seems a modest request: allow blacks to use the local swimming pool one day per week. The city fathers vetoed this on grounds that they simply did not have the money to drain and refill the pool after each use by the "Nigras." No doubt exercising considerable self-control in containing their rage, the local NAACP people, with Williams as spokesman, called for total integration of the facility--a request that was, of course, not granted. 1

This is but one illustration of the intransigence of that and other communities throughout the South and Southwest during the mid-1950s and 1960s. Throughout this time period, the Ku Klux Klan was active in the Monroe area and did its best to intimidate the black population, who could hardly turn for help to local law enforcement officials, because many police officers were themselves Klan members. Due in great part to this distressing situation, Williams organized segments of the black community into "self-defense units." 2

In 1959, after a white jury acquitted a white of a brutal attack on a black, Williams told a reporter that violence should be met with violence. This resulted in his six-month suspension as head of the Monroe NAACP. All this turned out to be more than Williams could take, and he began to look outward, toward Marxist-Leninist states.

Journeying to Cuba a number of times in 1960, and disseminating favorable information about Fidel Castro and his government, Williams became even more unpopular with American black leaders than previously. He even went so far as to telegram Cuban foreign minister Raul Roa at the U.N. The contents of this missive were read by Roa during a debate about the U.S.-backed 1961 invasion of Cuba known as the Bay of Pigs. The telegram stated:

Now that the United States has proclaimed military support for people willing to rebel against oppression. . . . Negroes in the South urgently request tanks, artillery, arms, money, use of American airfields and white mercenaries to crush the racist tyrants who have betrayed the American Revolution and the Civil War. We also request prayers for this noble undertaking.

Thus Williams attracted the attention of the revolutionary left. So impressed was Milton Rosen, a Communist party functionary who later founded the Pro-

-177-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Nazis, Communists, Klansmen, and Others on the Fringe: Political Extremism in America
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 530

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.