References.-- GOODNOW: Comparative Administrative Law, I, 38-47, 127- 133, 159-161; II, 1-100-- B. WYMAN: Principles of the Administrative, Law, chs, 5-8.-- F. R. MECHEM: The Law of Public Offices and Officers.
BEFORE taking up in detail the organization and functions of the various branches of the national administration, some attention may be given to the general principles of administrative organization applied throughout the national system.
In the chapter on the Cabinet it has been seen that the largest units in the national administration are the executive departments. The historical development of the departments and the distribution of functions among them has also been noted, as well as the special duties of the heads of the departments.
All of the departments are further divided into a varying number of bureaus, each charged with some definite branch of the department work. In some cases such branches of a department are classed as offices, commissions, or, if comparatively unimportant, as divisions. Bureaus, like departments, are established by statutes; and the Attorney-General has held that they can be established only by act of Congress, and not by an administrative regulation of the executive.1
Bureaus are in turn often further subdivided into units known as divisions, although this term is also applied to some department subdivisions of the higher grade. The functions of divisions may be determined by a system of subject classi-____________________