THE REAL EXECUTIVE
2. ROUTINE: THE CIVIL SERVICE
The composition of the several English Executive Departments is, in general, the same. The agents involved fall, as in the case of the Real Executive as a whole, into two numerically unequal classes,--the political and the non-political. The political head of a Department is a minister. He is, in a majority of cases, a member of the Cabinet. There is, likewise, at least one Under-Secretary of State or Parliamentary Secretary, a member of the Ministry but not of the Cabinet, who assists the head of the Department. The highest non-political agent in a Department is known as the Permanent Secretary or Permanent Under-Secretary of State. In addition, there is a small army of lesser non-political agents. Highest and lowest, the non-political agents make up, in general, the Civil Service.
The Civil Service is technically to be distinguished from the Defence Services or the Armed Forces of the Crown. The two together constitute the Routine Executive. The Civil Service, therefore, includes, in general, persons of a non-political and non-military character who are employed by the central, as distinguished from the local, government. These governmental employees or civil servants number approximately half a million. They fall into a great number and variety of classes and grades.
More than half of the great body of English civil servants, that is to say, more than a quarter of a million, are employed in the Post Office Department. About 100,000 are to be found in the three Defence Departments. If to these four Departments should be added six others--Customs and Excise Department, Inland Revenue Department, Ministry of Health,