NUMEROUS individuals and institutions have been very helpful to us as we pursued research into the activities of the governmental, business, and religious leaders involved with setting American policy toward China during this period. We are most grateful to Professors John Israel and Norman Graebner of the University of Virginia, who provided us with the grounding in Chinese and American diplomatic history needed to carry out this study and who offered invaluable guidance and criticism to us over the years as we prepared this work. A grant from the Liberty Fund and the Institute for Humane Studies made possible research into the Hornbeck Papers. Tobin N. Harvey, Patricia Hager, Sandra Mannis, Sandra Bergeson, and Barbara Lann enhanced the manuscript by their thoughtful scrutiny and sustained efforts and we remain indebted to them for their assistance. John Stack guided the manuscript through a long process of review and revision. Finally, this study could not have been completed without the encouragement, guidance, and patience of our wives, Bunty Crane and Maida Watson, and the forbearance of our children, Elizabeth, Nora, Emily, Matthew, and Brian Crane, and Moira and Brian Breslin.