support or refute the effect of exam stress on lymphocyte stimulation. Rather, I wish to emphasize the potential usefulness of the information contained in replicate assays. Certainly the application of the exclusionary rule described here, or of other similar rules, has the potential not only to increase reliability of the immune measures, but also to impact on the levels of immune responsiveness.
The concepts presented here are quite familiar to scientists working in psychology and they have proved to be useful for testing hypotheses in those fields. Psychoneuroimmunology is both a new and interdisciplinary field that combines conceptual and methodological concepts from the many of the disciplines contributing to the area. The purpose of this chapter was to highlight four concepts, mediation versus moderation, individual differences, aggregation, and replicates, that have been important to psychology and to suggest that they may have a place in PNI research.
The author thanks Heiddis Valdimarsdottir, Eileen Kennedy-Moore, Anthony Napoli, and Joseph Schwartz for their helpful comments on an earlier draft.
This research was supported, in part, by grant MH39234 from the National Institutes for Mental Health.
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