Grant McConnell, Duncan MacRae, Jr., and the late Morton Grodzins supervised the preparation of this manuscript in its initial form, and the undertaking would have been literally impossible without their assistance. Each contributed specific and continuing commentary. More important, Grant McConnell made American politics intelligible to me; Duncan MacRae, Jr., and John M. Butler performed the same function with the statistical techniques which, thanks only to their perseverance, can appear here.
J. David Greenstone, Jerry Mandel, and Paul Roazen contributed the kind of detailed intellectual and editorial criticism one has no right to expect even from friends. In addition, the following people read some version of the manuscript, entirely or in part, and left their imprint on its final form: Arthur Lipow, Seymour Martin Lipset, Hanna Pitkin, Nelson W. Polsby, Donald S. Rothchild, Leslye Russell, Michael N. Shute, and Aaron Wildavsky. Nancy Poling of The M.I.T. Press contributed invaluable editorial assistance. The book also owes much to the students at Berkeley.
Miss Helen Smith of the University of Chicago, Inter- Library Loan, helped me procure valuable and esoteric election returns. Duncan MacRae, Jr., contributed from a grant the money which made the statistical work possible. Nancy