The Worst Years
FOLLOWING THE EXPROPRIATION of 669 noble families in 1929, the property of another 837 households was expropriated in 1930-31, including the property of 205 high ecclesiastical figures. And this time, ominously, 711 heads of households were put to death or imprisoned, on the accusation of having opposed the power of the state. On the one hand, the confiscations gave the revolutionaries a capital fund of livestock to distribute to their supporters, the poorest herdsmen, and the co-operatives. On the other hand, the policy of redoubled confiscation, accompanied by the execution of opponents, defines the period of what Mongol and Russian writers now call Left Deviation, from 1929 to 1932. To the term "deviation" the Mongol writers often add the terms "mistake" and "excess."
Elated by their success in rooting out the Rightists from the Party headquarters and the Central Government in the capital city without armed opposition, the members of the "Rural Opposition" returned to the