People and Change: An Introduction to Counseling and Stress Management

By Catherine M. Flanagan | Go to book overview

Appendix V
Making Changes in Thinking

The initial boost to the emergence of the cognitive movement started in the late 1950s and early 1960s, with the writings of George Kelly ( 1955), Julian Rotter ( 1954), Aaron Beck ( 1963), Albert Ellis ( 1962), and Albert Bandura ( 1969). Whereas behaviorists had focused on external influences on people's actions, cognitive theorists invoked central, cognitive, and symbolic mechanisms as necessary for change. Over the intervening 30 years, a large number of "cognitive therapies" have developed, witnessing a growing alliance between the cognitive and clinical sciences. Mahoney ( 1988), has identified at least 17 cognitive perspectives that claim to be distinct approaches (see also Dobson, 1988, chapters 1 and 10; Schwartz, 1982). In this appendix, I describe a number of recognized and effective cognitive techniques for dealing with specific problems, under the broad headings of: cognitive restructuring, visual imagery, and attention focusing.


COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING

Techniques that can collectively be described as cognitive restructuring aim to help clients identify maladaptive cognitions and beliefs, recognize their adverse impact, and replace them with more adaptive thought patterns. The therapist usually starts off by examining clients' self-talk. If it is found to be faulty, they are taught how to dispute their problematic self-statements. Depending on the nature of the difficulties, a deeper analysis of underlying beliefs may also be carried out (See Beck & Emery, 1985, chapters 11,15; Dryden, 1984).

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People and Change: An Introduction to Counseling and Stress Management
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - How Problems Develop 7
  • 1 - Learning 9
  • 2 - Sources of Stress 23
  • 3 - The Stress Response 49
  • Part II - Specific Problem Areas 59
  • 4 - Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias 61
  • 5 - Depression 75
  • 6 - Obsessive-Compulsive Problems 85
  • 7 - Relating 95
  • 8 - Marriage 105
  • 9 - Sex 113
  • 10 - Overindulgence 123
  • 11 - Attrition, Adherence, and Relapse 135
  • Appendix I - Identifying Problems and Planning Changes 149
  • Appendix V - Making Changes in Thinking 201
  • References 229
  • Author Index 237
  • Subject Index 245
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