Laboratory Studies on Normative and Electrographic Features of Sleep-Talking
The scientific literature contains a large number of observations on sleeputterance in the laboratory. Perhaps the majority of them were based on subjects who were selected without regard for a history of sleep-talking but rather for research projects with broader goals, such as the assessment of sleep mentation ( Kamiya, 1961; Rechtschaffen, Goodenough, & Shapiro, 1962), or episodic sleep disorders in general ( Gastaut & Broughton, 1965; Popoviciú & Szabó, 1973; Szabó & Waitsuk, 1971), and therefore were subjects who fortuitously produced one or more sleep-utterances in the laboratory. With the accumulation of sufficient quantities of such episodes, it became possible to acquire data suitable for scientific study. I know of only four investigations, however, that specifically employed self-professed, chronic sleep-talkers prospectively and that included one or more undisturbed baseline nights in the laboratory schedule: Tani, Yoshu, Yoshino, and Kobayashi ( 1966), Arkin, Toth, Baker, and Hastey(1970a), MacNeilage ( 1971) and Sewitch ( 1976). The others cited may also have had some baseline nights, but this was not made clear in the published report. That is, in pursuit of other goals, they used such procedures as mentation report awakenings or even indwelling catheters with enuretic patients. The resulting statistics were calculated on the basis of heterogeneously pooled observations. I therefore turn initially to those reports with one or more baseline nights using subjects with a self-professed, externally corroborated history of sleep-talking.