Sleep-Utterance and Associated Mentation Recalled during Subsequent Wakefulness
Is there a discernible relationship between the content of sleep-speech and mentation reports obtained subsequently? Views on this matter, like so much else in the literature surveyed, show considerable disparity. Some authors maintain that there is no correspondence whatsoever between somniloquy content and that of associated wakeful mentation, whether the latter is recalled on being awakened immediately after the speech ( Carpenter, 1849; Ellis, 1926; Maury, 1878; Moreau, 1820; Trbmner, 1911a,b), or on awakening the following morning ( Bregman, 1910; Burrell, 1904; Cook, 1937; Elder, 1927; Landauer, 1918; Schilder & Kauders, 1956). In either condition, there is said to be complete amnesia for the sleep-speech and its associated mentation. On the other hand, many other authorities contend that a definite relationship between sleep-speech and recalled wakeful mentation is demonstrable at least some of the time, as examined in this section.
Several categories of such relationship may be discerned in comments in the literature concerning sleep-speech content and proximate sleep mentation. In all instances, the author states or implies that the subject unwittingly emitted an overt utterance during behavioral sleep and was queried immediately, or else sometime afterward while awake, as to what had been passing through his mind. The subject may then recall one or more of the following four sorts of sleep-imagined events:
Events in which one or more words were uttered in a "dream" and in which words were unambiguously expressed in the sleep-speech, represent firstorder concordance. (See Andriani, 1892; Baudry, 1974; Crile and Mot both