Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain

By Ronald Hutton | Go to book overview

34
WAKES, REVELS, AND HOPPINGS

THE four months between July and October may have been full of hard agricultural work -- weeding, reaping, binding, and threshing -- but they also contained some of the finest weather of the year and therefore some of its best potential for outdoor festivity. In most of Scotland this took the form of fairs, sports, and dances, lacking any ritual structure. Only in the northern Hebrides, where religious reformation had been least effective, did something of the latter obtain; at Michaelmas, the feast of St Michael the Archangel upon 29 September. He was regarded locally as patron saint of the sea upon which the islanders partly or wholly depended for survival, and his day was marked by a set of customs first recorded in their outline in the 1690s, when the region began to be studied by outsiders 1 On Michaelmas Eve the womenfolk of a household would make the struan, a huge bannock including all the varieties of grain grown on the farm. In the morning all would attend church, and then the family would share a meal consisting of struanand lamb, opened in Catholic communities with a hymn to St Michael. The remains of the food were given to the local poor, and next everybody except the very young and the very old mounted horses and formed a procession with the other islanders, led by the local minister or priest. It rode sunwise around the local burial ground, repeating the hymn in Catholic areas: an annual tribute to the dead, near the end of the sailing and fishing season and after the harvest. There followed horse races and other sports, and in the evening each townland gathered in the largest house, for an exchange of gifts between the young people and dancing to hired musicians. The cavalcade and feasting was held during the eighteenth century in Catholic and Protestant communities alike upon Skye, Coll, and Tiree, and in all of the Outer Hebrides. It lingered longest among the Catholics of the latter, being last recorded on North Uist in 1866. The struan was still baked in the Outer Hebrides in the early twentieth century, and may be yet, but only as a private, and irregular, family treat. The early part of the nineteenth, therefore, saw the decisive decline of a custom which had been the largest and most dramatic communal rite of the early modern Hebridean year: it seems to have collapsed with the progressive depopulation and loosening of the island communities. 2

In mainland Britain, Michaelmas was a day for holding courts, paying rents, and enjoying a good meal -- traditionally of goose. Instead of having a single

-348-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements and Note xiii
  • Contents xv
  • List of Plates xvii
  • List of Maps xx
  • 1 - The Origins of Christmas 1
  • 2 - The Twelve Days 9
  • 3 - The Trials of Christmas 25
  • 4 - Rites of Celebration and Reassurance 34
  • 5 - Rites of Purification and Blessing 42
  • 6 - Rites of Hospitality and Charity 54
  • 7 - Mummers' Play and Sword Dance 70
  • 8 - Hobby-Horse and Horn Dance 81
  • 9 - Misrule 95
  • 10 - The Reinvention of Christmas 112
  • 11 - Speeding the Plough 124
  • 12 - Brigid's Night 134
  • 13 - Candlemas 139
  • 14 - Valentines 146
  • 15 - Shrovetide 151
  • 16 - Lent 169
  • 17 - The Origins of Easter 179
  • 18 - Holy Weekz 182
  • 19 - An Egg at Easter 198
  • 20 - The Easter Holidays 204
  • 21 - England and St George 214
  • 22 - Beltane 218
  • 23 - The May 226
  • 24 - May Games and Whitsun Ales 244
  • 25 - Morris and Marian 262
  • 26 - Rogationtide and Pentecost 277
  • 27 - Royal Oak 288
  • 28 - A Merrie May 295
  • 29 - Corpus Christi 304
  • 30 - The Midsummer Fires 311
  • 31 - Sheep, Hay, and Rushes 322
  • 32 - First Fruits 327
  • 33 - Harvest Home 332
  • 34 - Wakes, Revels, and Hoppings 348
  • 35 - Samhain 360
  • 36 - Saints and Souls 371
  • 37 - The Modern Hallowe'En 379
  • 38 - Blood Month and Virgin Queen 386
  • 39 - Gunpowder Treason 393
  • 40 - Conclusions 408
  • Notes 428
  • Index 519
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 542

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.