Historians of Modern Europe

By Hans A. Schmitt | Go to book overview

CARLTON J. H. HAYES

CARTER JEFFERSON University of Massachusetts, Boston

T HE LATE Carlton J. H. Hayes is remembered today chiefly for two things -- his pioneer studies of nationalism and his widely read, influential textbooks on European history. Despite his contributions to the study of history, however, and despite his early acceptance as a leading member of what might be called the historical establishment, he ended his career an embattled figure, alienated from many of the colleagues whose praise had brought him recognition. His later estrangement from these men is not surprising for, basically, he did not share their views; the fact that they accepted him so fully in earlier days is more difficult to explain. In this essay, therefore, I hope not only to outline the development of a scholar's ideas but also to indicate something of the nature of prevalent attitudes in the historical profession as it existed in the United States in the past half century.

Hayes was born in Afton, New York, in 1882. Both his parents came from old and respected families that had been in New York since before the American Revolution.1 His father was a physician, his mother an accomplished musician. Hayes led his class in high school, then attended Columbia University, where he remained the rest of his life. In 1904, just before he finished college, he made a significant decision: he left behind his Baptist upbringing and became a Roman Catholic.

When Hayes entered Columbia, the study of history there was dominated by James Harvey Robinson, leader of the "Columbia School" of historians and proponent of the "New History," essen-

____________________
1
Hayes to Carter Jefferson , March 30, 1955.

-15-

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Historians of Modern Europe
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Introduction vii
  • Contents xix
  • Part One - Anglo-American Perspectives 3
  • Arnold J. Toynbee - The Paradox of Prophecy 5
  • Carlton J. H. Hayes 15
  • Oscar Halecki 36
  • Hans Kohn - Historian of Nationalism 62
  • A. J. P. Taylor 78
  • J. L. Hammond 95
  • Part Two - Continental Perspectives 121
  • Adolfo Omodeo - Historian of the "Religion of Freedom" 123
  • Gerhard Ritter 151
  • Gaetano Salvemini: - Meridionalista 206
  • Ernest Labrousse 235
  • Federico Chabod - Portrait of a Master Historian 255
  • The France of M. Chastenet 291
  • Gioacchino Volpe 315
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