This study is a revised version of a thesis submitted in 1997 for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London. It would not have been produced without the constant guidance, assistance, inspiration, and personal friendship of my doctoral supervisor Judge Rosalyn Higgins DBE, QC. The suggestion of the subject was made by Judge Higgins and her guidance in seeing this work through to its finish was essential. Judge Higgins gave much more than was required from a doctoral supervisor as evidenced, for example, by her obtaining special dispensation after being elected to the International Court of Justice to continue supervision of my thesis.
I wish also to single out and acknowledge the very important contribution that has been made by Professors Ian Brownlie CBE, QC, FBA, and Maurice Mendelson QC. This work has benefited greatly from their valuable comments, encouragement, and suggestions.
I would like to thank the following people who assisted me greatly during interviews conducted in New York and New Haven by discussing, often at great length, the subject of this book: Anastasia Caryanides, Sir Marrack Goulding, Cameron Hume, Dr Roy Lee, Robert Rosenstock, Paul Szasz, Dr Shashi Tharoor, Sir Brian Urquhart, Elizabeth Wilmshurst, and Dr Ralph Zacklin; and Professors Michael Reisman and Bruce Russett of Yale University.
Thanks are also due to Dapo Akande, Dr Amazu Asouzu, Anthony Aust CMG, Daniel Bethlehem, Professor Christine Chinkin, Professor Hugh Collins, Professor James Crawford SC, Professor Eileen Denza CMG, Professor Peter Duffy QC, Richard Gardiner, Professor Christopher Greenwood, David Hutchinson, Professor Jeffrey Jowell QC, Dr Peter Khan, Kofi Kufuor, Dr Dominic McGoldrick, Professor Peter Muchlinski, Professor Rein Mullerson, Judge Dolliver Nelson, Professor Dawn Oliver, Professor David O'Keeffe, Professor Alain Pellet, Professor Bruno Simma, Professor Detlev Vagts, Professor Colin Warbrick, and Michael Wood CMG, who, by providing valuable assistance during different stages of writing, have each made their unique contribution to this work.
Finally, I would like to thank the Delegates and Staff of Oxford University Press for the care they have bestowed on the preparation of the book.
D.S. London June 1998