so easy, in fact, that it's called "zapping." If not switched out, sound volume can be reduced. Where VCR time-shift recordings are played, the tape can be "fast-forwarded" through the commercial (or it can be edited out).
Advertisers and agencies sense a loss of commercial exposure and effectiveness as these devices and their concomitant use for zapping commercials increase. This sentiment could foster demand for a syndicated qualitative service which may provide measurement of commercial audience exposure.
In Chapter 11 we discuss the future, with emphasis on the measurement problems that may be created by new technologies.