NEED FOR GOVERNMENTAL INTEGRATION
Whatever the reasons for the great number of political divisions, they do not provide an ideal political organization for metropolitan regions. They tend to divert the attention of the inhabitants from the fact that they are members of one large community and lead them to act as members of separate units. They result in great variation in municipal regulations in force in different sections of the metropolitan area, and in the standards of the services maintained, in sectional treatment of problems which are essentially metropolitan, in radical inequalities in the tax resources of the several political divisions, and in jurisdictional conflicts. The political subdivisions are jealous of each other and proceed in virtual independence. Each has its own legislative and executive organization, its traditions, policies, political issues. Frequently each political unit enjoys some special advantage which it desires to retain and which causes it to assume an attitude of suspicion towards other sections not possessed of such advantage; or it labors under some special disadvantage which causes it to envy other communities not under like handicap. It is difficult under these conditions to bring about concerted action throughout the metropolitan area. Consequently it is often well- nigh impossible to solve effectively municipal problems common to all.
In a report submitted to the Pennsylvania senate in 1854, a Select Committee of Senators from the City and County of Philadelphia described the condition which then obtained in the metropolitan district of Philadelphia. Their words may be applied to almost any metropolitan area today. The committee said1:
It is not to be supposed of human nature, that the people of these many separate local governments have not been actuated by a preference and seal for their separate interests, nor that coulsion and hostile feelings have not arisen obstructive to a concert of measures for the common welfare. With no paramount or pervasive power of legislation or control, no laws uniformly operative over the whole could be adopted or executed beyond the respective bounds of each. Rioters suppressed within one Jurisdiction take refuge and find Impunity within another. Measures of public improvement by the city or respective districts are arrested at each extreme of their narrow limits; and works erected competent to supply the wants of all with but slight additional expense, are cur-